Part 1 of 4: Different perspectives on responsibility.
Neither principle is considered subordinate to the other; each complements the other and is capable of expressing both female and male characteristics. Within Taoism, then, women were able to seek spiritual fulfillment beyond their family duties. Some joined convents, others gathered with men to discuss philosophy and religion, a few became Taoist adepts.
This pervasive fear that women could bring chaos by upsetting the cosmic harmony was an obstacle for women who aspired to male political leadership. Buddhism as practiced in Japan and China also granted women some Women in world war one essay of empowerment.
Women went on pilgrimages to Buddhist temples, retreated to nunneries, sometimes gave public lectures, and led temple groups. Chinese Buddhism was at its height during the reign of Wu Zetian who promoted the religion and even justified her rule by claiming she was a reincarnation of a previous female Buddhist saint.
Lovely Tang era paintings and statues depict women on horseback, and as administrators, dancers and musicians. Stories and poems, like those from the pen of the infamous female poet Yu Xuanji, also attest to the almost modern openness of the period.
Written by the female historian Ban Zhoa Han dynasty, ca. Ea reinterpretation of Confucian teaching called NeoConfucianism stratified the position of women even more. Augmented by ideas of wife fidelity and husband worship brought by the Mongols, NeoConfucian beliefs led to the egregious practices of footbinding, insistence on widow chastity, and the selling of unwanted daughters.
Although footbinding illustrates the perceived need to limit female mobility, the practice did not appear until the Song Dynasty and was not universally followed. Women of most ethnic minorities, including Hakka and Manchu women, did not practice it, nor did some peasants who had to work in the fields, nor did women in Japan.
Within Shintoism women held power as mikos, a type of shaman with divination abilities.
Her Great Shrine at Ise, cared for by high priestesses, still plays an important role in the lives of the Japanese today.
The more positive influences of Shintoism were weakened by the samurai culture and spread of Confucianism and Buddhism in Japan. Yet, in the Heian era C. Gender difference in this period favored literate women who were free to write in the expressive, popular vernacular language, while men most often wrote in the more formal, inaccessible, classical Chinese.
Both the independence and the gender limits of women of the pampered elite are wonderfully illustrated in the lively, gossipy writings of Shikibu MurasakiSei Shogonon, and other Heian female writers.
The oft quoted Three Obediences dictated their lives: By the late nineteenth, early twentieth centuries, serious challenges to accepted beliefs about gender were mounted in both Japan and China.
A core of educated women in both Japan and China joined the call by speaking and writing in public for the first time. Conservative nationalists and traditionalists in Japan and China at different times reacted by mounting long campaigns against any change in gender roles.
Ultimately female activists were labeled unseemly, unfeminine, and too western. Woodblock prints were even circulated showing previously forbidden views of women in the imperial family attending public events adorned in western Victorian-era clothes. In spite of these efforts, conservative legislators reasserted NeoConfucian family values by passing restrictive laws, codes, and a new constitution.
Women were denied the right to any political participation, including even taking political science courses, and married women lost some of the legal rights they had held during the Shogunate.
Not surprisingly, the magazine was often censored and banned. As young people were drawn into the struggle against imperialism and traditional Chinese society, women in the May Fourth Movement also called the New Cultural Movement experienced for the first time their own emancipation and wrote about social restraints within the traditional authoritarian family system.
Throughout the s and early 30s, familial conflicts raged over bobbed hair, coeducation, and freedom in love and marriage. The Communists, for their part, turned away from what they saw as bourgeois feminist reforms to attack the socioeconomic conditions they perceived as the source of all female oppressions.
Ultimately, the need to develop a sense of solidarity between male and female peasants as both subjects of oppression resulted in criticizing concerns relating to women alone.
Such was the fate of author Ding Ling, the most prominent female writer of her generation, whose attack on the sexist attitudes of her comrades resulted in suppression.
The state also failed to deal with opposition to the progressive changes embodied in the Marriage Law ofwhich granted young people the right to choose their own marriage partners, and women to initiate divorce and to inherit property.
Female-specific concerns continued to be ignored during the Cultural Revolution when equality between sexes was assumed and class war took center stage. At the same time, the old ideal of the worker who forsakes even family duties to selflessly contribute to society still holds.
This can be seen in the predominance of women in the essential work of cloth production. The Zhou Chou period B. Many of the mill workers in both countries were girls who left poor rural homes to live in dorms.
Accounts also reveal that with an independent income, some women began to lead a more self-sufficient life. The unusual marriage resistance movement among some silk workers in South China was a particularly intriguing outcome of this independence.
Women are the major workforce in the South China mills and in globalized textile factories and clothing sweatshops world-wide.
And the question of whether this sexual division of work marginalizes women, or offers them expanded opportunities, is still being debated. Strong Legendary and Real Heroes:World War one consisted of two major - Women in World War II When the war across seas broke out in Canada was called to the front as a Essay Topics.
The home front covers the activities of the civilians in a nation at war. World War II was a total war; homeland production became even more invaluable to both the Allied and Axis caninariojana.com on the home front during World War II was a significant part of the war effort for all participants and had a major impact on the outcome of the war.
Losing the War. Man is a bubble, and all the world is a stormJeremy Taylor, Holy Dying () My father owned a gorgeous porcelain tiger about half the size of a house cat. The table below presents an abbreviated geologic time scale, with times and events germane to this essay.
Please refer to a complete geologic time scale when this one seems inadequate. The poems in this book are the legacy of a generation. This volume contains brief biographical information about each poet.
The strength of purpose, the lives sacrificed, the loss to the world of so many, are timeless reminders of "the war to end all wars" that must be remembered. (This essay is excerpted and modified from Teaching About Women in China and Japan, by Lyn Reese, found in Social Education, NCSS, March ) (the Ch’ien T’ao poem is from Kenneth Rexroth & Ling Chung, Women Poets of China, New Directions Book, ).