Zur Planung und Bedeutung des dritten Italienzuges vgl. Stefan Weinfurter, Heinrich II. Herrscher am Ende der Zeiten,S.
It's available online through www. We call that first phase the Goggles and Gloves phase because we really were focusing on the development of virtual reality systems in which the participant the term user really doesn't seem to capture the sense of it; Disney Imagineering uses the term "guest" enters a virtual world by putting on a VR helmet and gloves.
One mantra was "If it doesn't have a glove, it's not VR. So, in addition to developing VR interfaces, we were working on software systems to test the interfaces. Matt was instrumental in recognizing that vocabulary matters—that the choice of names for behaviors is critically important in a system for novices.
His work was very influential in shaping the direction of the development work that led to the Alice system we have today. His doctoral dissertation, Alice: Easy-to-Learn for Novices should be required reading for people interested in how to design systems for novices.
It's available on the Web at www. The language for programming VR systems required one to think in terms of X,Y,Z coordinates, and to use terms like translate, scale, and rotate to describe things happening in a vir- tual world.
On the early Silicon Graphics machines, angles were measured in integers representing tenths of a degree, so commands like rotate were common. A person needed fairly advanced mathematics skills to program graphical objects in a 3D system. An Introduction to Programming Using Alice 2. Matt saw that the language of VR was a part of the problem and that if we could change the language, then VR systems would be easier to use, and thus more accessible for novices and more powerful for experts at the same time.
In his dissertation he wrote that "the tradeoff between power and simplicity is often a false one. Turn left 1 revolution makes sense to a lot more people than rotate X The first version of Alice emerged as an easy-to-use scripting system for building virtual worlds. The system itself was a combination of C and Python code, with which one could rapidly create virtual worlds by iterating Python scripts.
Over the years, the programming features of Python have been replaced with dragging and dropping code elements. It's important to note that even early versions of Alice could not have been created without the efforts of a dedicated team of people.
Tommy Burnette was also responsible for a great deal of the early Alice software implementation. A complete listing of people who have contributed to the Alice project over the years is available at www. These are two of the most amazing agencies in the federal government, when it comes to return on investment of public money.
A while back, NSF and DARPA asked for funding to explore using computers as tools for communication among educators, scientists, and engineers, and the result is the Internet. We believe that any time they ask for money, Congress should jump at the chance to spend public funds so wisely.
One day one of the people from the Department of Defense who was overseeing our project said that we should forget about the virtual reality hardware and concentrate on the software we were building.
He argued that our most important contribution was the way in which our software could be used as a rapid development system for 3D graphics prototyping. The experience working with the Imagineering team helped to make it clear that we were moving into a realm of work that would require both artists and engineers.
In the spirit of bringing artists and engineers together, Randy created a course called "Building Virtual Worlds" in which teams of artists and engineers work together Foreword to the First Edition to create interactive virtual worlds.
In the Spring ofthe research group moved to Carnegie Mellon University, in order to take advantage of the fairly unique cross-disciplinary focus at CMU. However, no story of the Alice system would be complete without acknowledging how gracious the University of Virginia was in allowing us to continue work on Alice seamlessly, by allowing us to transfer our funding and research to another university, and we are very grateful for their support.
We have fond memories of the University of Virginia and highly recommend it to students looking for a great place to go to school. Over the next few years we gradually moved into the third phase of our work as we developed better ways to build virtual worlds.
Alice became a workhorse for the "Building Virtual Worlds" course, which was then being taught at Carnegie Mellon, for several years, finally realizing our dream of allowing "a 1, creative flowers to bloom. Instead of thinking about how to improve programming to make 3D graphics more accesible, it started to become clear that 3D graphics could make programming more accesible.
A seminal event occured one day when Randy was on a family trip to DisneyWorld. His ten year old nephew Christopher spent the day working with Alice on a laptop as they drove.
Chris programmed 3D graphics for eight hours straight, never really having trouble with the 3D part, but constantly asking for help about "where the commas and semicolons had to go. Wanda Dann and Steve Cooper both became important contributors to the future of Alice at about this time.
Joseph's University, have long been interested in how visualization can be used to teach object-oriented programming concepts.
They began to work with us to shape Alice as a better tool to teach introductory programming.If the rotation of the record player is just 10% faster in the first half and 10% slower in the second half of each turn, the difference is a whole note at midturn.
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