History of sociology The field of sociology itself—and sociological theory by extension—is relatively new. Both date back to the 18th and 19th centuries.
Entropy-the measure of uncertainty in a system.
In the case of a two-headed coin, there can be neither any freedom of choice nor any reduction in uncertainty so long as the destination knows exactly what the outcome must be. In other words, the value of a specific bit of information depends on the probability that it will occur.
In general, the informative value of an item in a message decreases in exact proportion to the likelihood of its occurrence.
Redundancy-the degree to which information is not unique in the system. Perfect redundancy is equal to total repetition and is found in pure form only in machines.
In human beings, the very act of repetition changes, in some minute way, the meaning or the message and the larger social significance of the event.
Zero redundancy creates sheer unpredictability, for there is no way of knowing what items in a sequence will come next. As a rule, no message can reach maximum efficiency unless it contains a balance between the unexpected and the predictable, between what the receiver must have underscored to acquire understanding and what can be deleted as extraneous.
Noise-the measure of information not related to the message. In electrical apparatus noise comes only from within the system, whereas in human activity it may occur quite apart from the act of transmission and reception.
Interference may result, for example, from background noise in the immediate surroundings, from noisy channels a crackling microphonefrom the organization and semantic aspects of the message syntactical and semantical noiseor from psychological interference with encoding and decoding.
Noise need not be considered a detriment unless it produces a significant interference with the reception of the message. Even when the disturbance is substantial, the strength of the signal or the rate of redundancy may be increased to restore efficiency.
Channel Capacity-the measure of the maximum amount of information a channel can carry. Suppose you wanted to know where a given checker was located on a checkerboard. If you start by asking if it is located in the first black square at the extreme left of the second row from the top and find the answer to be no, sixty-three possibilities remain-a high level of uncertainty.
On the other hand, if you first ask whether it falls on any square at the top half of the board, the alternative will be reduced by half regardless of the answer. By following the first strategy it could be necessary to ask up to sixty-three questions inefficient indeed! Provided an influential yet counter-intuitive definition of communication.
From Littlejohn, Stephen W. Theories of Human Communication. Wadsworth,p Information is a measure of uncertainty, or entropy, in a situation.
The greater the uncertainty, the more the information. As used by the information theorist, the concept does not refer to a message, facts, or meaning. We have said that information is the amount of uncertainty in the situation. For example, your friend is about to flip a coin.
Will it land heads up or tails up? You are uncertain, you cannot predict. This uncertainty, which results from the entropy in the situation, will be eliminated by seeing the result of the flip.Acting, the performing art in which movement, gesture, and intonation are used to realize a fictional character for the stage, for motion pictures, or for television..
Acting is generally agreed to be a matter less of mimicry, exhibitionism, or imitation than of the ability to react to imaginary stimuli.
Business management can be defined as the acquisition, allocation, and utilization of resources through planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling. 1) Classical Theory: One of the first schools of management thought, the classical management theory, was developed during the age of Industrial Revolution during the period from 's to mid During this period the classical theories of organization began to emerge.
This course provides a basic introduction to the nature of human growth and development from conception through adolescence. Students are provided the opportunity to explore the physical, psychosocial, and cognitive factors of growth and development from both a .
As a result, the classical management theory developed from efforts to find the “one best way” to perform and manage tasks. This school of thought is made up of two branches: classical scientific and classical administrative, described in . The International Relations Theory Web Site. Please contribute to our project!
We seek your assistance in helping to create a descriptive list (see below) of existing IR paradigms, approaches and caninariojana.com you know of a particular IR theory, for example, that is not listed and described below, please e-mail the name of the theory and a brief description of it to Mark Beavis at irtheory.