Upward slanting eye lids palpebral fissures Unusually shaped or small ears Poor muscle tone Broad, short hands with a single crease in the palm Relatively short fingers and small hands and feet Excessive flexibility Tiny white spots on the colored part iris of the eye called Brushfield's spots Short height Infants with Down syndrome may be average size, but typically they grow slowly and remain shorter than other children the same age.
NIH has confirmed that this first trimester test is more accurate than second trimester screening methods. False positives can be caused by undetected multiple fetuses very rare with the ultrasound testsincorrect date of pregnancy, or normal variation in the proteins.
Confirmation of screen positive is normally accomplished with amniocentesis. This is an invasive procedure and involves taking amniotic fluid from the mother and identifying fetal cells.
The lab work can take several weeks but will detect over The added miscarriage risk from an amniocentesis is traditionally quoted as 0.
It is not possible at birth to predict their capabilities, nor are the number or appearance of physical features predictive of future ability. The identification of the best methods of teaching each particular child ideally begins soon after birth through early intervention programs.
The cognitive problems that are found among children with Down syndrome can also be found among typical children.
Therefore, parents can use general programs that are offered through the schools or other means. Language skills show a difference between understanding speech and expressing speech.
It is common for children with Down syndrome to need speech therapy to help with expressive language. Occupational therapy can address these issues. For example, there is a presumption of mainstream in many parts of the UK. Mainstreaming is the process whereby students of differing abilities are placed in classes with their chronological peers.
Complex thinking as required in sciences but also in history, the arts, and other subjects can often be beyond the abilities of some, or achieved much later than in other children. Therefore, children with Down syndrome may benefit from mainstreaming provided that some adjustments are made to the curriculum.
A popular alternative is cooperation between special schools and mainstream schools. In cooperation, the core subjects are taught in separate classes, which neither slows down the typical students nor neglects the students with disabilities.
Social activities, outings, and many sports and arts activities are performed together, as are all breaks and meals. Health aspects of Down syndrome The medical consequences of the extra genetic material in Down syndrome are highly variable and may affect the function of any organ system or bodily process.
Other less common serious illnesses include leukemiaimmune deficienciesand epilepsy. However, health benefits of Down syndrome include greatly reduced incidence of many common malignancies except leukemia and testicular cancer  - although it is, as yet, unclear whether the reduced incidence of various fatal cancers among people with Down syndrome is as a direct result of tumor-suppressor genes on chromosome 21, because of reduced exposure to environmental factors that contribute to cancer risk, or some other as-yet unspecified factor.
Down syndrome can result from several different genetic mechanisms. This results in a wide variability in individual symptoms due to complex gene and environment interactions. Prior to birth, it is not possible to predict the symptoms that an individual with Down syndrome will develop.
Some problems are present at birth, such as certain heart malformations. Others become apparent over time, such as epilepsy. These factors can contribute to a significantly shorter lifespan for people with Down syndrome. One study, carried out in the United States inshowed an average lifespan of 49 years, with considerable variations between different ethnic and socio-economic groups.
Research of Down syndrome-related genes Down syndrome disorders are based on having too many copies of the genes located on chromosome In general, this leads to an overexpression of the genes.
It is estimated that chromosome 21 contains to genes. The search for major genes involved in Down syndrome characteristics is normally in the region 21q21—21q Recent use of transgenic mice to study specific genes in the Down syndrome critical region has yielded some results. APP  is an Amyloid beta A4 precursor protein.
It is suspected to have a major role in cognitive difficulties.
Researchers have "demonstrated that overexpression of ETS2 results in apoptosis. Transgenic mice overexpressing ETS2 developed a smaller thymus and lymphocyte abnormalities, similar to features observed in Down syndrome.
There are also strides being made in education, housing, and social settings to create environments which are accessible and supportive to people with Down syndrome. In most developed countries, since the early twentieth century many people with Down syndrome were housed in institutions or colonies and excluded from society.
However, since the early s parents and their organisations such as MENCAPeducators and other professionals have generally advocated a policy of inclusion,  bringing people with any form of mental or physical disability into general society as much as possible.
In many countries, people with Down syndrome are educated in the normal school system; there are increasingly higher-quality opportunities to mix special education with regular education settings.
The mental health, adaptive behaviour and intellectual abilities of people with Down syndrome (n=) were evaluated in a population-based survey of social and health care records. Females had better cognitive abilities and speech production compared with . In most cases, Down syndrome occurs when there is an extra copy of chromosome This form of Down syndrome is called trisomy The extra chromosome causes problems with . Down syndrome (sometimes called Down’s syndrome) is a condition in which a child is born with an extra copy of their 21st chromosome — hence its other name, trisomy This causes physical and mental developmental delays and disabilities. Many of the disabilities are .
Despite this change, reduced abilities of people with Down syndrome can pose a challenge to parents and families. Although living with family is preferable to institutionalization for most people, people with Down syndrome often encounter patronizing attitudes and discrimination in the wider community.There is a need to conduct more research in the mental-health aspects of Down syndrome, but the increased awareness of the mental-health issues bodes very well for the future.
Down syndrome (sometimes called Down’s syndrome) is a condition in which a child is born with an extra copy of their 21st chromosome — hence its other name, trisomy This causes physical and mental developmental delays and disabilities. Many of the disabilities are . The pattern of mental health problems in Down syndrome vary depending on the age and developmental characteristics of the child or adult with Down syndrome as follows.
Young and early school age children with limitations in language and communication skills, cognition, and non-verbal problem solving abilities present with increased. The addition of this genetic material alters the normal development of a child with Down syndrome and causes the typical characteristics of the disorder.
There are three different types of Down syndrome: trisomy 21 (nondisjunction), translocation, and mosaicism.
There is a need to conduct more research in the mental-health aspects of Down syndrome, but the increased awareness of the mental-health issues bodes very well for the future. Mental Symptoms.
Down syndrome also affects a person’s ability to think, reason, understand, and be social. The effects range from mild to moderate.
Children with Down syndrome often take longer to reach important goals like crawling, walking, and talking.