The best known aspect of morphology, usually called anatomy, is the study of gross structure, or form, of organs and organisms. It should not be inferred however, that even the human body, which has been extensively studied, has been so completely explored that nothing… Gross anatomy This ancient discipline reached its culmination between andby which time its subject matter was firmly established. Beliefs in life after death and a disquieting uncertainty concerning the possibility of bodily resurrection further inhibited systematic study. Nevertheless, knowledge of the body was acquired by treating wounds, aiding in childbirthand setting broken limbs.
Functions of the Nervous System To carry out its normal role, the nervous system has three overlapping functions. Much like a sentry, it uses its millions of sensory receptors to monitor changes occurring both inside and outside the body; these changes are called stimuli, and the gathered information is called sensory input.
Interpretation of sensory input. It processes and interprets the sensory input and decides what should be done at each moment, a process called integration. It then effects a response by activating muscles or glands effectors via motor output. The brain is the center of mental activity, including consciousness, thinking, and memory.
This function depends on the ability of the nervous system to detect, interpret, and respond to changes in the internal and external conditions. It can help stimulate or inhibit the activities of other systems to help maintain a constant internal environment.
|Dr. P's Anatomy & Physiology II Links||Some honeys are sold by floral type; that is, they are given the name of the predominant flowers visited by the bees when they accumulated the honey.|
|Nervous System Anatomy and Physiology • Nurseslabs||The best known aspect of morphology, usually called anatomy, is the study of gross structure, or form, of organs and organisms.|
|Anatomy, Physiology & Pathology of the Human Eye||Functions of the Lymphatic System The functions of the lymphatic system are:|
Anatomy of the Nervous System The nervous system does not work alone to regulate and maintain body homeostasis; the endocrine system is a second important regulating system. Organization of the Nervous System We only have one nervous system, but, because of its complexity, it is difficult to consider all of its parts at the same time; so, to simplify its study, we divide it in terms of its structures structural classification or in terms Quiz on anatomy and physiology its activities functional classification.
Structural Classification The structural classification, which includes all of the nervous system organs, has two subdivisions- the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.
Central nervous system CNS. The CNS consists of the brain and spinal cordwhich occupy the dorsal body cavity and act as the integrating and command centers of the nervous system Peripheral nervous system PNS. The PNS, the part of the nervous system outside the CNS, consists mainly of the nerves that extend from the brain and spinal cord.
Functional Classification The functional classification scheme is concerned only with PNS structures. The sensory, or afferent division, consists of nerves composed of nerve fibers that convey impulses to the central nervous system from sensory receptors located in various parts of the body.
Sensory fibers delivering impulses from the skin, skeletal muscles, and joints are called somatic sensory fibers.
Those that transmit impulses from the visceral organs are called visceral sensory fibers. The motor, or efferent division carries impulses from the CNS to effector organs, the muscles and glands; the motor division has two subdivisions: The somatic nervous system allows us to consciously, or voluntarily, control our skeletal muscles.
The autonomic nervous system regulates events that are automatic, or involuntary; this subdivision, commonly called involuntary nervous system, has two parts: Structure and Function Even though it is complex, nervous tissue is made up of just two principal types of cells- supporting cells and neurons.
Neuroglia include many types of cells that generally support, insulate, and protect the delicate neurons; in addition, each of the different types of neuroglia, also simply called either glia or glial cells,has special functions.
These are abundant, star-shaped cells that account for nearly half of the neural tissue; astrocytes form a living barrier between the capillaries and neurons and play a role in making exchanges between the two so they could help protect neurons from harmful substances that might be in the blood.
These are spiderlike phagocytes that dispose of debris, including dead brain cells and bacteria. Ependymal cells are glial cells that line the central cavities of the brain and the spinal cord; the beating of their cilia helps to circulate the cerebrospinal fluid that fills those cavities and forms a protective cushion around the CNS.
These are glia that wrap their flat extensions tightly around the nerve fibers, producing fatty insulating coverings called myelin sheaths. Schwann cells form the myelin sheaths around nerve fibers that are found in the PNS. Satellite cells act as protective, cushioning cells.
Neurons Neurons, also called nerve cells, are highly specialized to transmit messages nerve impulses from one part of the body to another. The cell body is the metabolic center of the neuron; it has a transparent nucleus with a conspicuous nucleolus; the rough ER, called Nissl substance, and neurofibrils are particularly abundant in the cell body.
The armlike processes, or fibers, vary in length from microscopic to 3 to 4 feet; dendrons convey incoming messages toward the cell body, while axons generate nerve impulses and typically conduct them away from the cell body.The nervous system is the master controlling and communicating system of the body.
Every thought, action, and emotion reflects its activity. Its signaling device, or means of communicating with body cells, is electrical impulses, which are rapid and specific and cause almost immediate responses. Try our free HESI A2 Anatomy and Physiology practice test. Great test prep for your HESI exam.
Includes 40 practice questions with detailed explanations. 1 Human Anatomy and Physiology I Laboratory Microscopic Anatomy and Organization of Skeletal Muscle This lab involves study of the laboratory exercise “Microscopic Anatomy and Organization of Skeletal Muscle”, completing the Review Sheet for the exercise, and taking the relevant quiz.
Course Summary Biology Anatomy & Physiology has been evaluated and recommended for 3 semester hours and may be transferred to over 2, colleges and universities. Biology Anatomy & Physiology has been evaluated and recommended for 3 semester hours and may be transferred to over 2, colleges and.
Anatomy, a field in the biological sciences concerned with the identification and description of the body structures of living things. Gross anatomy involves the study of major body structures by dissection and observation and in its narrowest sense is concerned only with the human body..
“Gross anatomy” customarily refers to the study of those body structures large enough to be examined.