The regions of the great American civilizations, in central America and down the western coastal strip of south America, are densely populated when the Spanish arrive. Moreover the Spaniards are mainly interested in extracting the wealth of these regions and taking it back to Europe. The result is that the Europeans in Latin America remain a relatively small upper class governing a population of Indian peasants. From Mexico and central America, down through Ecuador and Colombia to Peru and Bolivia, Indians survive in large numbers through the colonial centuries and retain even today much of their own culture.
Spanish Missions in Texas. Courtesy of the Texas Almanac. The Spanish mission was a frontier institution that sought to incorporate indigenous people into the Spanish colonial empire, its Catholic religion, and certain aspects of its Hispanic culture through the formal establishment or recognition of sedentary Indian communities entrusted to the tutelage of missionaries under the protection and control of the Spanish state.
This joint institution of indigenous communities and the Spanish church and state was developed in response to the often very detrimental results of leaving the Hispanic control of relations with Indians on the expanding frontier to overly enterprising civilians and soldiers.
This had resulted too often in the abuse and even enslavement of the Indians and a heightening of antagonism. To the degree that the mission effort succeeded, it furthered the Spanish goals of political, economic, and religious expansion in America in competition with other European-origin nations.
Spanish colonial authorities enjoyed the patronato real royal patronage over ecclesiastical affairs, granted to the Spanish crown by the pope.
As patrons the state authorities made the final determination as to where and when missions would be founded or closed, what administrative policies would be observed, who could be missionaries, how many missionaries could be assigned to each mission, and how many soldiers if any would be stationed at a mission.
In turn, the state paid for the missionaries' overseas travel, the founding costs of a mission, and the missionaries' annual salary. The state also usually provided military protection and enforcement.
Native Americans at Early Spanish Missions. Franciscans from several of their provinces and missionary colleges in New Spain established all the missions in Texas.
The ideal of the missionaries themselves, supported by royal decrees, was to establish autonomous Christian towns with communal property, labor, worship, political life, and social relations all supervised by the missionaries and insulated from the possible negative influences of other Indian groups and Spaniards themselves.
Daily life was to follow a highly organized routine of prayer, work, training, meals, and relaxation, punctuated by frequent religious holidays and celebrations. In this closely supervised setting the Indians were expected to mature in Christianity and Spanish political and economic practices until they would no longer require special mission status.
Then their communities could be incorporated as such into ordinary colonial society, albeit with all its racial and class distinctions. This transition from official mission status to ordinary Spanish society, when it occurred in an official manner, was called "secularization.
Although colonial law specified no precise time for this transition to take effect, increasing pressure for the secularization of most missions developed in the last decades of the eighteenth century.
San Miguel de los Adaes. Colonial authorities and Franciscan missionaries attempted to introduce the mission system into widely scattered areas of Texas between andwith greatly varying results.
In all, twenty-six missions were maintained for different lengths of time within the future boundaries of the state. To this number should be added San Miguel de los Adaes the easternmost colonial Texas outpost, which was later incorporated into Louisiana and those missionary centers established in Mexico whose influence extended into Texas.
Although most of these missions fell short of their goal, several had relative success, and all played a key role in establishing the European and mixed-race foundations of Texas.
In general the missionaries sought to eradicate among missionized natives all appearances of indigenous religion and culture judged to be incompatible with or inferior to Christian beliefs and practices. However, some of the more experienced friars learned to tolerate if not encourage certain group practices originally associated with native religion, such as the matachines dances or even mitotes native celebrations with dancing and possibly peyotewhen they judged them to be relatively free of elements inadmissible in Christianity.
Although the missionary strategy was to maintain as strict a vigilance as possible over the life of the missionized natives, most Indian groups in Texas were seminomadic and did not intend to adopt a year-round fixed sedentary existence, even if they voluntarily entered a mission for a time.The parliamentary acts of ended the East India Company’s trade monopoly, and in it was transformed into a managing agency for the British government of India.
In , the British East India Company was chartered, and throughout the 17th century English, Dutch, and French traders traveled this sea route and established posts in India's port cities.
Top. The English bring distinct traditions across the Atlantic with them, but their experience in the coastal colonies pushes them into new modes of social life and material culture.” “Europeans colonize North America in the early seventeenth century, motivated by religious and economic goals.
The French English Conflict. English settlers offer bounties for "Indian" scalps. French offer bounties for English scalps. established in the early 's and located five miles above Fredericton, had surpassed Meductic in importance.
to hrs – Delivery of Passports For rates of visa fees for various categories of visa for different countries, see list at Visa Fees A visa application is required to be . Opium, spices, tea, and silk were commonly traded by the East India Company. After the Indian Rebellion of , many people blamed the East India Company for allowing it to happen. Compare and contrast Portuguese, Dutch and English trading posts. What is a joint-stock company? Analyze the power of the East India Company. Describe the hardships and rewards of exploring Siberia. Describe the widespread impact of the 7 Years War/ French and Indian War. Analyze the significance of the Columbian Exchange.
The community contained a church and was the home of a French missionary. In , the bell. Native Americans are often known as Indians or American Indians. The term Native American was introduced in the United States in preference to the older term Indian to distinguish the indigenous peoples of the Americas from the people of India, and to avoid negative stereotypes associated with .
Aug 21, · Watch video · Contents. American-Indian Wars ; Suspicion and hostility, stemming from technological and cultural differences as well as mutual feelings of superiority, have permeated relations betweenNative.