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Horticulturalist[ edit ] Horticulturalist societies are societies in which the primary means of subsistence is the cultivation of crops using hand tools. Like pastoral societies, the cultivation of crops increases population densities and, as a result of food surpluses, allows for a division of labor in society.
Horticulture differs from agriculture in that agriculture employs animals, machinery, or some other non-human means to facilitate the cultivation of crops while horticulture relies solely on humans for crop cultivation.
A pineapple farmer in Ghana. Agrarian societies are societies in which the primary means of subsistence is the cultivation of crops using a mixture of human and non-human means i. Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber, and other desired products by the cultivation of plants and the raising of domesticated animals livestock.
Agriculture can refer to subsistence agriculture or industrial agriculture. Subsistence agriculture is a simple, often organic, system using saved seed native to the ecoregion combined with crop rotation or other relatively simple techniques to maximize yield.
Historically most farmers were engaged in subsistence agriculture and this is still the case in many developing nations. In developed nations a person using such simple techniques on small patches of land would generally be referred to as a gardener; activity of this type would be seen more as a hobby than a profession.
Some people in developed nations are driven into such primitive methods by poverty. It is also worth noting that large scale organic farming is on the rise as a result of a renewed interest in non-genetically modified and pesticide free foods.
In developed nations, a farmer or industrial agriculturalist is usually defined as someone with an ownership interest in crops or livestock, and who provides labor or management in their production.
Farmers obtain their financial income from the cultivation of land to yield crops or the commercial raising of animals animal husbandryor both. Those who provide only labor but not management and do not have ownership are often called farmhands, or, if they supervise a leased strip of land growing only one crop, as sharecroppers.
Agriculture allows a much greater density of population than can be supported by hunting and gathering and allows for the accumulation of excess product to keep for winter use or to sell for profit.
The ability of farmers to feed large numbers of people whose activities have nothing to do with material production was the crucial factor in the rise of surplus, specialization, advanced technology, hierarchical social structures, inequality, and standing armies.
Most certainly there was a gradual transition from hunter-gatherer to agricultural economies after a lengthy period when some crops were deliberately planted and other foods were gathered from the wild.
In addition to the emergence of farming in the Fertile Crescent, agriculture appeared by at least 6, B. Small scale agriculture also likely arose independently in early Neolithic contexts in India rice and Southeast Asia taro. If the operative definition of agriculture includes large scale intensive cultivation of land, i.
By the early s agricultural practices, particularly careful selection of hardy strains and cultivars, had so improved that yield per land unit was many times that seen in the Middle Ages and before, especially in the largely virgin lands of North and South America.
Agriculture Today[ edit ] In the world, the use of crop breeding, better management of soil nutrients, and improved weed control have greatly increased yields per unit area. At the same time, the use of mechanization has decreased labor input.
The developing world generally produces lower yields, having less of the latest science, capital, and technology base. More people in the world are involved in agriculture as their primary economic activity than in any other, yet it only accounts for four percent of the world's GDP.
The rapid rise of mechanization in the 20th century, especially in the form of the tractor, reduced the necessity of humans performing the demanding tasks of sowing, harvesting, and threshing. With mechanization, these tasks could be performed with a speed and on a scale barely imaginable before.
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These advances have resulted in a substantial increase in the yield of agricultural techniques that have also translated into a decline in the percentage of populations in developed countries that are required to work in agriculture to feed the rest of the population.
Percent of the U. Industrial[ edit ] A brick factory in the Netherlands is an example of industry. An industrial society is a society in which the primary means of subsistence is industry. Industry is a system of production focused on mechanized manufacturing of goods.
Like agrarian societies, industrial societies increase food surpluses, resulting in more developed hierarchies and significantly more division of labor. The division of labor in industrial societies is often one of the most notable elements of the society and can even function to re-organize the development of relationships.
Whereas relationships in pre-industrial societies were more likely to develop through contact at one's place of worship or through proximity of housing, industrial society brings people with similar occupations together, often leading to the formation of friendships through one's work. What is some times referred to as The Second Industrial Revolution describes later, somewhat less dramatic changes resulting from the widespread availability of electric power and the internal-combustion engine.
Today, industry makes up only a relatively small percentage of highly developed countries' workforce see the pie chart abovein large part due to advanced mechanization. The use of machines and robots to facilitate manufacturing reduces the number of people required to work in industry by increasing their efficiency.
As a result, a single worker can produce substantially more goods in the same amount of time today than they used to be able to produce.
This has also resulted in a transition in most highly developed countries into a post-industrial or service-oriented economy. Post-Industrial[ edit ] A post-industrial society is a society in which the primary means of subsistence is derived from service-oriented work, as opposed to agriculture or industry.
Post-industrial societies are often marked by:Positive effects of the internet Internet, as most of us know, is a large network of networks, which communicate with each other by means of data packets.
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