His experiences in Indian environment have led him to create several works about Indian themes and tradition. Since Kipling has lived a great deal of life in Indian regions, he was much familiar with the Indian languages. He also has Indian themes in his work, Just So Stories, in which he has given many characters recognizable names related to Indian languages. Helen Bannerman has also penned an Indian themed folktale, Little Black Sambo, during the same period.
Revisiting a Structural Analysis of Folktales: However, with the growing interest in narrative as a social and psychological phenomenon, structural analyses of stories have come under attack. Therefore, more recent works in narratological research have called for a narrative analysis to go beyond structures.
This article revisits a structure analysis of folktales.
Using a Myanmar Burmese folktale as a tutor text, it advocates an investigation of the relationship between form, function and field of a tale, and suggests a structural analysis as a means to gain insights into the cultural determination of the narrative motif and the social purpose of storytelling.
Folktales in general are part of folk literature, which is more widely referred to as folklore. They can be classified as one of the categories of folk storytelling. Myths are stories that are considered sacred, legends are more secular recounting of actual events, and folktales are narrative regarded as fiction Eugenio Simply put, a folktale is a traditional story that has been passed on by word of mouth.
Folktales of a culture are usually preserved as part of a long folk tradition reflecting the humour, romance and wisdom of the people in the culture. Scholars have studied folktales in terms of their structure, their purpose and their content.
Given that form, function and field are the three major criteria in the classification of a genre Swalesthe narrative structure of a tale can be regarded as the form, its social purpose the function, and its content the field. Tracing back the literature on the studies of tales, it is found that classifications of tales in a collection are mostly based on the narrative motif or content of the stories — e.
Animal tales, Fairy tales, Trickster tales, Phenomenon tales, Wonder tales etc. For example, it can be argued that the theme of an Animal tale can be the same as those of a Wonder tale, and that animals can be taking the narrative roles in a Wonder tale.
On the other hand, classifications of tales based on a structural analysis are not exempted from critical comments as well. According to Propp, a tale can be described according to its component parts and the relationship of these components to each other and to the whole.
He claims that an event as an act of a character defined from the point of view of its significance for the course of the action can be extracted as basic components of the tale. These thirty-one events are claimed to occur in an identical sequence as the basic components of a tale.
Following Propp, scholars such as Dundesand Bremond study the structures of folktales from various cultures. Proposing a formal analysis of tales as a means to gain an understanding of concrete human behaviour and thought, his study on African folktales Dundes illuminates how the making and breaking of friendship serves as a structural frame within which a variety of tale types occur in that culture.
Folktales are generally passed down from one generation to another and often take on the characteristics of the time and place in which they are told. Folktales speak to universal and timeless themes, and help folks make sense of their existence or cope with the world in which they live. Folklore is a collection of fictional stories about animals and people, of cultural myths, jokes, songs, tales, and even quotes. It is a description of culture, which has been passed down verbally from generation to generation, though many are now in written form. A third method of folklore analysis, popular in the late 20th century, is the Psychoanalytic Interpretation, championed by Alan Dundes.
Similarly, Bremond attempts to construct a formal model for analyzing and classifying the episodes of the fairy tale, and proposes the morphology of French fairy tales.
These studies suggest the significance and use of structural analyses not only for making typological statements, but also for understanding the cultural determination of contents within possibly transcultural forms.
In fact, the foregrounding of a sequence of events in these studies has given rise to many interesting story-grammars de Beaugrandeand has also led to the heyday of narrative structure studies, under the term narratology Genette However, with the growing interest in narrative as a social and psychological phenomenon, rather than solely as a formal literary or historical genre, the theories and practices in the structural analyses of stories came under attack Rimmon-Kenanand are often accused of disregarding the content in the search for the form.
Thus poststructuralist studies of stories have tried to include the other two aspects of the genre — the function and the field — in specifying and explaining the nature of stories. In understanding a story on the basis of its function, Brewer and Lichtenstein However, as pointed out by Stein There should be no doubt about a large number of stories which carry other functions beyond entertainment.
Other functions of stories can be to resolve personal social problems and to recapitulate and reorganize personal experience Labov and Waletzky ; to establish social identity and social relationship, social hierarchies, and emotional bonds Bloome ; to educate, persuade, warn, reassure, justify, explain, and console among members of an organization Gabriel In the case of folktales, it can be generally accepted that the function or the social purpose of storytelling is to preserve the culture of a civilization, to explain natural phenomena, to transmit historical and important social information, or to teach important moral and ethical issues Taylor With the culturally determined setting for such folkloristic storytelling, it can also be argued that there is the thematic restriction of the subject matters in folktales Fludernik As discussed earlier, what is at issue in a study of folktales in particular, and stories in general, is how the structural features of a story can be related to its contents and functions.
Through an illustration of the relationship between the narrative structure formthe social purpose function and the story content filedthis study aims to suggest a structural analysis as a means, rather than an end, to understand the nature of stories in general.
For this purpose, the study takes a tale with didactic moral as a tutor text from a collection of folktales of Myanmar Burmawhere folktales have been preserved for generations not only as a reflection of a particular culture, but also as a means of instilling certain concepts in the society.
First, the notion of contrastive narrative structure needs to be explained.Folklore studies, also known as folkloristics, and occasionally tradition studies or folk life studies in Britain, is the formal academic discipline devoted to the study of folklore.
This term, along with its synonyms, [note 1] gained currency in the s to distinguish the academic study of traditional culture from the folklore artifacts. Immediately download the Folklore summary, chapter-by-chapter analysis, book notes, essays, quotes, character descriptions, lesson plans, and more - everything you need for studying or teaching Folklore.
In addition to their pervasiveness, these stories show an astonishing longevity; many such tales are found in classical antiquity. Ariadne's Thread is an encyclopedia of more than a hundred such international oral tales, all present in the literature of ancient Greece and Rome. Folklore is a collection of fictional stories about animals and people, of cultural myths, jokes, songs, tales, and even quotes.
It is a description of culture, which has been passed down verbally from generation to generation, though many are now in written form. Folktales are generally passed down from one generation to another and often take on the characteristics of the time and place in which they are told.
Folktales speak to universal and timeless themes, and help folks make sense of their existence or cope with the world in which they live. Read folk tales from China collected by R. Wilhelm, Norman Hinsdale Pitman and Andrew Lang. Jump to full list of Chinese folk tales.
About: China’s folklore is part of their country’s proud tradition, with hundreds of stories beloved by both young and old.