Matthew Zimmerman Navigation Sonar Coverage Zone Scanning Sonar Coverage Zone When considering a sonar product for use in navigation, it is important to consider a number of parameters and system characteristics. Obviously, the ability to look ahead is important.
The result is a narrow high velocity particle stream that can penetrate armor. The Javelin counters the advent of explosive reactive armor ERA. ERA boxes or tiles lying over a vehicle's main armor explode when struck by a warhead. This explosion does not harm the vehicle's main armor, but causes steel panels to fly across the path of a HEAT round's narrow particle stream, disrupting its focus and leaving it unable to cut through the main armor.
The Javelin uses two shaped-charge warheads in tandem. The weak, smaller diameter HEAT precursor charge pushes through the ERA without setting it off, and punches a channel through it for the much larger diameter HEAT warhead, which then penetrates the target's primary armor.
A two-layered molybdenum liner is used for the precursor and a copper liner for the main warhead. To protect the main charge from the explosive blast, shock, and debris caused by the impact of the missile's nose and the detonation of the precursor charge, a blast shield is used between the two charges.
This was the first composite material blast shield and the first that had a hole through the middle to provide a jet that is less diffuse. A newer main charge liner produces a higher velocity jet.
While making the warhead smaller, this change makes it more effective, leaving more room for propellant for the main rocket motor, and thus increasing the missile's range.
The ESAF system enables the firing and arming process to proceed, while imposing a series of safety checks on the missile. ESAF cues the launch motor after the trigger is pulled. When the missile reaches a key acceleration point indicating that it has cleared the launch tubethe ESAF initiates a second arming signal to fire the flight motor.
After another check on missile conditions target lock checkESAF initiates final arming to enable the warheads for detonation upon target impact.
When the missile strikes the target, ESAF enables the tandem warhead function provide appropriate time between the detonation of the precursor charge and the detonation of the main charge. Though the Javelin's tandem HEAT warhead has proven efficient at destroying tanks, most threats it was employed against in Iraq and Afghanistan were weapon crews and teams, buildings, and lightly armored and unarmored vehicles.
While it is still lethal against tanks, the new warhead has a naturally fragmenting steel warhead case that doubles the effectiveness against personnel due to enhanced fragmentation. The MPWH does not add weight or cost and has a lighter composite missile mid-body to enable drop-in replacement to current Javelin tubes.
Most rocket launchers require a large clear area behind the gunner to prevent injury from backblast. To address this shortcoming, without increasing recoil to an unacceptable level, the Javelin system uses a soft launch mechanism.
A launch motor using conventional rocket propellant ejects the missile from the launcher, but stops burning before the missile clears the tube. The flight motor is ignited only after a delay to allow for sufficient clearance from the operator. To save weight, the two motors are integrated with a burst disc between them; it is designed to tolerate the pressure of the launch motor from one side, but to easily rupture from the other when the flight motor ignites.
The motors use a common nozzle, with the flight motor's exhaust flowing through the expended launch motor. Because the launch motor casing remains in place, an unusual annular ring-shaped igniter is used to start it; a normal igniter would be blown out the back of the missile when the flight motor ignited and could injure the operator.
Since the launch motor uses a standard NATO propellant, the presence of lead beta-resorcinol as a burn rate modifier causes an amount of lead and lead oxide to be present in the exhaust; for this reason, gunners are asked to hold their breath after firing.
In the event that the launch motor malfunctions and the launch tube is overpressurized—for example, if the rocket gets stuck—the Javelin missile includes a pressure release system to prevent the launcher from exploding. The launch motor is held in place by a set of shear pinswhich fracture if the pressure rises too high and allow the motor to be pushed out the back of the tube.
Seeker[ edit ] As a fire-and-forget missile, after launch the missile has to be able to track and destroy its target without the gunner. This is done by coupling an on-board imaging IR system different from CLU imaging system with an on-board tracking system. The gunner uses the CLU's IR system to find and identify the target then switches to the missile's independent IR system to set a track box around the target and establish a lock.
The gunner places brackets around the image for locking. The seeker stays focused on the target's image continuing to track it as the target moves or the missile's flight path alters or as attack angles change. The seeker has three main components: Focal plane array FPA [ edit ] Main article: Staring array The seeker assembly is encased in a dome that is transparent to long-wave infrared radiation.
The IR radiation passes through the dome and then through lenses that focus the energy. The staring array is a photo-voltaic device where the incident photons stimulate electrons and are stored, pixel by pixel, in a readout integrated circuits attached at the rear of the detector.
These electrons are converted to voltages that are multiplexed out of the ROIC on a frame-by-frame basis.What is an advantage of using sonar technology?
ADVANTAGES Sound NAvigation and Ranging—SONAR—is used to find and identify objects in water. Advantages and disadvantages of using. REMTECH, a company established in with locations in France and the US was created by a team of highly qualified physicists and engineers willing to further explore the atmospheric boundary layer.
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The FGM Javelin is an American man-portable fire-and-forget anti-tank missile fielded to replace the M47 Dragon anti-tank missile in US service. It uses an automatic infrared guidance that allows the user to seek cover immediately after launch, as opposed to wired-guided systems, like the Dragon, where the user has to actively guide the weapon throughout the engagement. What is an advantage of using sonar technology? ADVANTAGES Sound NAvigation and Ranging—SONAR—is used to find and identify objects in water. Advantages and disadvantages of using. Essay about Advantages and Disadvantages of SONAR Technology The Negative Effects of SONAR The world was first introduced to SONAR during World War II. It was originally created by the Navy, for military use.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Radar Radar uses electromagnetic wave that does not require a medium like Sonar (that uses water) so can be used in space and air. Radar can be long range and the wave propagate at the speed of light rather then sound (like with sonar).
It is less susceptible to weather conditions compared with caninariojana.com be. We highlight some of the advantages and disadvantages of using LiDAR.
Advantages of using LiDAR Data can be collected quickly and with high accuracy: LiDAR is an airborne sensing technology which makes data collection fast and comes with extremely high accuracy as a result of the positional advantage. This blog post illustrates the advantage of phased array processing sonars over scanning sonars for navigation applications.
The first figure at right shows an example coverage zone for a forward facing sonar.