The main properties of interest are flow speed, viscosity, and density. Optical sensors are particularly suited for label free sensing of chemical composition and particle size distribution PSD in the 0. The scientific goal of this project is to perform preliminary tests towards the integration of optical and MEMS-based sensors to open up new opportunities for flow characterization connected to a specific application.
History[ edit ] Amate paper has a long history. This history is not only because the raw materials for its manufacture have persisted but also that the manufacture, distribution and uses have adapted to the needs and restrictions of various epochs.
This history can be roughly divided into three periods: Amate tree growing in northern GuerreroMexico. The development of paper in Mesoamerica parallels that of China and Egypt, which used rice and papyrus respectively.
It was discovered at the site of HuitzilapaJalisco. Huitzilapa is a shaft tomb culture site located northwest of Tequila Volcano near the town of Magdalena. Rather than being produced from Trema micranthafrom which modern amate is made, the amate found at Huitzilapa is made from Ficus tecolutensis.
Coe and other researchers have asserted is authentic and dated to the 12thth century CE. Anthropologist Marion mentions that in Lacandonesin Chiapasthe Maya were still manufacturing and using bark clothing in the s.
For these reason, it was probably the Maya who first propagated knowledge about bark-paper-making and spread it throughout southern Mexico, GuatemalaBelizeHondurasand El Salvadorwhen it was at its height in the pre-classic period.
This amounted to aboutsheets annually. Most of the production was concentrated in the modern state of Moreloswhere Ficus trees are abundant because of the climate. It was also sent to the religious elites for ritual purposes.
The last share was allotted to royal scribes for the writing of codices and other records. Stone beaters dating from the 6th century CE have been found, and these tools are most often found where amate trees grow.
Most are made of volcanic stone with some made of marble and granite. They are usually rectangular or circular with grooves on one or both sides to macerate the fibers. These beaters are still used by Otomi artisans, and almost all are volcanic, with an additional groove added on the side to help hold the stone.
According to some early Spanish accounts, the bark was left overnight in water to soak, after which the finer inner fibers were separated from coarser outer fibers and pounded into flat sheets. But it is not known who did the work, or how the labor was divided.
This paper was related to power and religion, the way through which the Aztecs imposed and justified their dominance in Mesoamerica. As tribute, it represented a transaction between the dominant groups and the dominated villages.
In the second phase, the paper used by the royal authorities and priests for sacred and political purposes was a way to empower and frequently register all the other sumptuary exclusive things.
It was preceded by stone, clay and leather to transmit knowledge first in the form of pictures, and later with the Olmecs and Maya through a form of hieroglyphic writing. It could be bent, shirred, glued and melded for specific finishing touches and for decoration.
Two more advantages stimulated the extensive use of bark paper: Codices were converted into "books" by folding into an accordion pattern. Of the approximately surviving codices, about 16 date to before the conquest and are made of bark paper.
It was also used to dress idols, priests and sacrifice victims in forms of crowns, stoles, plumes, wigs, trusses and bracelets. Paper items such as flags, skeletons and very long papers, up to the length of a man, were used as offerings, often by burning them.
At a certain time of year, these were also used to ask for rain. At this time, the papers were colored blue with plumage at the spearhead. The other, post-conquest books were written on bark paper although a few were written on European paper, cotton, or animal hides.
The Codex Mendocino was commissioned by viceroy Antonio de Mendoza in to learn about the tribute system and other indigenous practices to be adapted to Spanish rule.
However, it is on European paper. In the early colonial period, there was a shortage of European paper, which made it necessary to use the indigenous version on occasion.The TOEFL iBT ® measures your English-language abilities in an academic setting.
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