Province of North Carolinafirst permanent English settlements in the late s nearly a century after the failed Roanoke Colony; see Albemarle Settlementsbecame a separate colony in — Province of South Carolinafirst permanent English settlement inbecame a separate colony in —
Maritime expansion, driven by commercial ambitions and by competition with Franceaccelerated in the 17th century and resulted in the establishment of settlements in North America and the West Indies.
Slave trading had begun earlier in Sierra Leonebut that region did not become a British possession until Nearly all these early settlements arose from the enterprise of particular companies and magnates rather than from any effort on the part of the English crown.
The crown exercised some rights of appointment and supervision, but the colonies were essentially self-managing enterprises. The formation of the empire was thus an unorganized process based on piecemeal acquisition, sometimes with the British government being the least willing partner in the enterprise.
In the 17th and 18th centuries, the crown exercised control over its colonies chiefly in the areas of trade and shipping. In accordance with the mercantilist philosophy of the time, the colonies were regarded as a source of necessary raw materials for England and were granted monopolies for their products, such as tobacco and sugar, in the British market.
In return, they were expected to conduct all their trade by means of English ships and to serve as markets for British manufactured goods. The Navigation Act of and subsequent acts set up a closed economy between Britain and its colonies; all colonial exports had to be shipped on English ships to the British market, and all colonial imports had to come by way of England.
Competition with France British military and naval power, under the leadership of such men as Robert CliveJames Wolfeand Eyre Cootegained for Britain two of the most important parts of its empire—Canada and India.
Malacca joined the empire inand Sir Stamford Raffles acquired Singapore in Dominance and dominions The 19th century marked the full flower of the British Empire. That office, which began inwas first an appendage of the Home Office and the Board of Trade, but by the s it had become a separate department with a growing staff and a continuing policy; it was the means by which discipline and pressure were exerted on the colonial governments when such action was considered necessary.
Partly owing to pressure from missionaries, British control was extended to FijiTongaPapua, and other islands in the Pacific Oceanand in the British High Commission for the Western Pacific Islands was created. The French completion of the Suez Canal provided Britain with a much shorter sea route to India.
Britain responded to this opportunity by expanding its port at Adenestablishing a protectorate in Somaliland now Somaliaand extending its influence in the sheikhdoms of southern Arabia and the Persian Gulf. Cypruswhich was, like Gibraltar and Malta, a link in the chain of communication with India through the Mediterranean, was occupied in Elsewhere, British influence in the Far East expanded with the development of the Straits Settlements and the federated Malay states, and in the s protectorates were formed over Brunei and Sarawak.
The greatest 19th-century extension of British power took place in Africahowever. Britain was the acknowledged ruling force in Egypt from and in the Sudan from Aug 21, · About the same time Hernando de Soto explored southeastern North America from Florida to the Mississippi River.
By Spain’s empire was complete and fleets of . The British colonization of the Americas List of English and British colonies in North America (in rough chronological order) The British Colonies in North America, – The Cambridge Illustrated History of the British Empire ().
excerpt and text search; Robinson, Howard.
HISTORY OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE including Virginia, Pilgrim Fathers, Massachusetts and New England, Dutch in America. A group of 13 British American colonies collectively broke from the British Empire in the s through a successful revolution, establishing the modern United States. After the end of the Napoleonic Wars (–15), the remaining British territories in North America were . Origins of the British Empire. Great Britain made its first tentative efforts to establish overseas settlements in the 16th century. Maritime expansion, driven by commercial ambitions and by competition with France, accelerated in the 17th century and resulted in the establishment of .
HISTORY OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE 16th - 17th century First steps English trade in the east North America West Indies France and Britain Independence The Caribbean Cape Colony Anglo-Russian rivalry Africa Heyday of empire South Africa To be completed HISTORY OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE . THE BRITISH EMPIRE 10 February The Treaty of Paris ended the Seven Years' War.
France ceded Canada and the Mississippi Valley to Britain. BENGAL. THE BRITISH CONQUEST OF CANADA Fort Nipigon The End of the First British Empire: North America A group of 13 British American colonies collectively broke from the British Empire in the s through a successful revolution, establishing the modern United States.
After the end of the Napoleonic Wars (–15), the remaining British territories in North America were . As we explore the Board of Trade’s plans for British North America, Max reveals details about the size of the British Empire after the Seven Years’ War; King George III’s order to the Board of Trade and its response to that order; And, information about the General Survey of North America and how the Board of Trade envisioned surveys and maps as the key to Great Britain’s better management of its North .