The Bilingual Education Debate: Part I Thirty years after its introduction, bilingual education is still generating controversy. In recent years, bilingual education has sparked as much controversy as any other education issue.
Bilingual education program models[ edit ] The following are several different types of bilingual education program models: This involves education in a child's native language, typically for no more than three years, to ensure that students do not fall behind in content areas like mathematics, science, and social studies while they are learning English.
Research has shown that many of the skills learned in the native language can be transferred easily to the second language later. The goal is to help students transition to mainstream, English-only classrooms as quickly as possible, and the linguistic goal of such programs is English acquisition only.
In a transitional bilingual program, the student's primary language is used as a vehicle to develop literacy skills and acquire academic knowledge. These programs are designed to help native and non-native English speakers become bilingual and biliterate.
This proportion gradually changes in the majority language until the curriculum is equally divided in both languages by 5th grade. The two-way bilingual immersion program is based on the principle of clear curriculum separation of the two languages of instruction.
The languages of instructions are alternated by theme or content area. A discussion on bilingual education in american type of immersion is required to develop the dual language proficiency, as social language can be mastered in couple of years, but a higher level of competency is required to read social studies texts or solve mathematics word problems, roughly around 5 to 7 years Collier, This program of instruction is intended for children who are not fully proficient in the English language.
This could be integrated into the subjects or courses of study enabling the students to grow effectively throughout the educational system. Title VII was amended many times since its introduction. The decree became part of the America Schools Act in As of Maythere were dual immersion programs operating in elementary schools in the United States in 10 different languages Center for Applied Linguistics, Dual Language programs are less common in US schools, although research indicates they are extremely effective in helping students learn English well and aiding the long-term performance of English learners in school.
Native English speakers benefit by learning a second language. English language learners ELLs are not segregated from their peers.
Another form of Bilingual Education is a type of Dual Language program that has students study in two different ways: In this type of program, the native language classes do not teach academic subjects.
The second-language classes are content-based, rather than grammar-based, so students learn all of their academic subjects in the second language. In the United States, majority of programs are English and Spanish but new partner languages have emerged lately such as Japanese, Korean, French, Mandarin, and Arabic.
The concept of Dual Language promotes bilingualism, improved awareness of cultural diversity, and higher levels of academic achievement by means of lessons in two languages. Education is in the child's native language for an extended duration, accompanied by education in English.
The goal is to develop literacy in the child's native language first, and transfer these skills to the second language. This education is ideal for many English learning students, but in many instances the resources for such education are not available.
Myths surrounding bilingual education[ edit ] Many myths and much prejudice has grown around bilingual education.
Researchers from the UK and Poland have listed the most entrenched misconceptions: These are all harmful convictions which have long been debunked,  yet still persist among many parents. It is important to understand what constitutes the decision for sending children to a bilingual school.
The decision should be based on, appropriate age, curriculum, and the preference of the child. The American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages has identified over twenty benefits to a child's development when provided adequate secondary language education, therefore debunking the vast majority of myths that may inhibit such education .
By country or region[ edit ] Africa[ edit ] In the African region, Countries such as Mozambique have taken the lead in bilingual education. The Ministry of Education and Human Development has made primary education fully bilingual in Children will be taught 16 Mozambican dialects during their early years of schooling.
Mother language instruction is terminated immediately during the schooling cycle and leaves only the international language established. It becomes a disadvantage that contributes to substantial lack of motivation on the part of teachers, students, and parents.
May Senegal[ edit ] Although bilingual schools exist, the majority of Senegalese schools teach in French and follow the French system.Education A Part of Conversation Questions for the ESL Classroom..
Where did you go to kindergarten? Where did you go to elementary school? Where did you go to junior high school? Where did you go to high school?
In the United States, bilingual education continues to provoke fierce debate. It seems that nearly everyone--from educators to policymakers to parents with school-age children to those without children--has a strong opinion on whether children with little fluency in English should be taught academic.
In the United States, bilingual education continues to provoke fierce debate. It seems that nearly everyone—from educators to policymakers to parents with school-age children to those without children—has a strong opinion on whether children with little fluency in English should be taught.
American Indian Bilingual Education--Some History NABE News November 5, , Vol. 14, No. 2 Jon Reyhner. While teaching a bilingual education class last Spring on the Northern Cheyenne Reservation, I asked my students . Many histories of the Bilingual Education Act have documented the deficiencies of its original version, which neither required school authorities to provide for bilingual education nor defined what bilingual education should look like.
- Bilingual education: The Benefits of Technology The topic of discussion will introduce how technology can benefit Bilingual education in classrooms across the United States. Alone, Bilingual education is a controversial issue.
American Needs Bilingual Education and Cultural Education - Language plays a large role in American society.